## Introduction to UART

Introduction to UART: UART as many of us knows the full form of it. UART stands for “Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter” As obvious from the asynchronous there is no control of clock with a single master single slave communication. In place of clock signal it is controlled by a start bit, stop bit and an optional parity bit. The transmitting UART converts the parallel data to serial data and transmits it to the receiving UART. It’s a two wire communication with the ground of both the UARTS are being common.…

## KALMAN FILTER INTRODUCTION

KALMAN FILTER INTRODUCTION: It is an iterative mathematical process that uses a set of equations and consecutive data input to quickly estimate the true value, position, velocity, etc of the object being measured when the measured values contain unpredicted or random error, uncertainty or variation. The below flow chart is working of Kalman Filter Now let’s move towards understanding the block by block. So first we take interest in the calculation of Kalman Gain. Kalman Gain: Kalman Gain may be expressed as a ratio between Error in Estimate to the…

## Barack Obama 10 Rules for Success

Barack Obama 10 Rules for Success: Barack Obama is a Lawyer by profession who struggled hard to become the first black president of the United States. He shares 10 rules of his life that make him a president of the United States. He thinks, everyone who follows these rules will end up in achieving his/her goals. Learn from your Failures. Write your own Destiny. Keep pressing ON until you achieve your goal. Don’t do all the mistakes by yourself. Learn from others. Worry more about what you want to do.…

## Suzuki Launch its new fuel-efficient 660cc Alto in Pakistan

Suzuki Launch its new fuel-efficient 660cc Alto in Pakistan: Suzuki Mehran rules the small car market in Pakistan from last 3 decades due to its best fuel average and cheap maintenance. With the import of 660cc cars in Pakistan during the last 3 years, Mehran faces a major setback in its annual sale. Uncomfortable interior and old design are the major concern of Mehran users. To regain the trust of their customers, Suzuki decides to launch their 660cc alto in Pakistan with a spacious interior, fuel-efficient features, and new look…

## MOV Instruction

MOV instruction normally used to copy the data from one location to another. Let’s take an example of it. MOV destination, source; it will copy the content of destination to the source For example, if the destination of the data is AX register and the source is CX. Then we’ll write the command in the following way MOV AX, CX; it will copy the content of CX to AX We can also directly load the value into the non-segment. MOV AX, 461EH; it will move 461E to AX MOV BX,…

## INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

As we know the CPUs only understand the 0s and 1s but it also becomes tedious for humans to program in 0s and 1s. Despite the hexadecimal systems made it easier but still its cumbersome for humans to program in the form of hexadecimal systems. Therefore, assembly languages were developed which provided mnemonics and features that made it a lot easier to program. In Computer science language mnemonics are termed as codes or abbreviations. MACHINE LANGUAGE Program consisting of 0s and 1s is referred to as machine language. Therefore, assembly…

## INSIDE 8088/86:

The CPU speed is dependent on two things The working frequency Internal architecture The working frequency can be increased by means of technology. It’s a tradeoff technology with cost. The more you have a budget, the more you can get the latest technology at the time of designing. The technology determines the working frequency, the power consumption and how efficiently it is designed. Therefore, it is dependent on the expertise of the designer. As far as internal architecture is concerned, there is a difference of pipelining between 8085 and 8088/86…

## REGISTERS IN 8088/86

The registers of 8088/86 are categorized into six General Pointer Index Segment Instruction Flag The General purpose registers can be accessed as 8-bit registers. For example, AX can be divided into AH & AL.